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halal & haram.






3)           HALAL & HARAM : PORK


5)           ANIMAL FAT (PIG)


7)           HALAL OR HARAM MEAT












18)       SMOKING
















Question :                                                                                                                 

Please define the difference in fiqh between the terms haram, makrooh tahreeman and makrooh.


The Arabic word 'Makruh' means detested, the opposite of liked or loved. In the terminology of Shari`ah, it refers to something which the Lawgiver asks us not to do, but the injunction is not in a definitive manner. It may be said that it means something refraining from which earns a person reward as long as he does not do it out of obedience, but a person who does it will not be punished, either.

As for the Arabic word 'Haram', it means forbidden. In the terminology of Shari`ah, it refers to something that the Lawgiver requires us not to do, the injunction here is in a definitive manner. Haram is the opposite of Halal (permitted). A person will be rewarded for keeping away from Haram as long as he refrains from doing it out of obedience, not out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it; in those cases he will not be rewarded for not doing it.”

The Hanafi school defines haram for what is proven to be haram in Qur'an or hadith that are narrated by many chains of narration to make the hadith as authentic as the Qur'an and the meaning of that hadith or Quranic evidence is of certainty.

If the proof doesn't comply with that level of standard, then it becomes makrooh karahat tahreem, which means that it is anticipated to be haram, but not certain.

The third category is makrooh karahat tanzih, which means that it is better for you to avoid it, but not sinful to do it.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :

Is it haram to use balsamic vinegar, wine vinegar? What is criteria for anything Halal?

Answer :                                                                                                                  

As for the ingredient “balsamic vinegar, wine vinegar”, you are best advised to consult local Muslim scholars who are more aware of the nature of such ingredients, for we are not sure about its nature, though we surveyed the Internet for relevant information.

However, we'd like to give you some general Islamic guidelines regarding the Halal (lawful) food.

The general principle is that any food is Halal except for the following kinds:

1. The dead animal

2. Blood

3. Pork

4. Animals that have been dedicated to anyone other than Allah, that is those which are slaughtered with the invocation of a name other than that of Allah Almighty —for example, the name of an idol.

5. The animal (or bird) that dies because of being strangled

6. The animal (or bird) that dies because of being beat with something.

7. The animal (or bird) that dies because of falling down from a height

8. The animal that dies because of being gored by another animal.

9. The animal (or bird) that dies because of being killed by a wild beast

10. Animals that have been immolated to idols.

Accordingly, all the kinds of food that Halal except what contains any of the prohibited kinds of food that we have mentioned above. Still, any food that contains any intoxicating substance, whether little or much, is absolutely Haram (unlawful).

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:


3. Halal and Haram: Pork


Why we can’t eat Pig?


Since Allah has prohibited it. Allah swt says: 
"Say (O Muhammad ): "I find not in that which has been inspired to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytatah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like), or the flesh of swine (pork, etc.) for that surely is impure, or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allâh (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allâh's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But whosoever is forced by necessity without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, (for him) certainly, your Lord is Oft­ Forgiving, Most Merciful."  (Al-An’am 6:145) 
According to above verse, items mentioned therein are impure. The pronoun 'that' refers to all three of the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knit with the hair of a pig, according to most of the scholars. (Fiqh As-Sunnah, Vol 1, Book 1. Purification. Fiqh 1.009. ) 
As regards your question, we’d like to make it clear that every committed Muslim should accept Allah’s Commands willingly, even without realizing the wisdom behind the Divine rule in question. If man manages to realize the wisdom behind certain prohibited things, it is well and good. If his mind lacks comprehending that Divine Wisdom, then he should accept the truth as it is, keeping in mind that Allah Almighty is the Omniscient of that which is beneficial to His Creatures.  

When Allah Almighty prohibits something for His servants, He does so certainly out of His overflowing mercy on them, to save them from all what may bring them harm; He is indeed Ever-Kind and Most Glorious!  

As regards the reason why eating pork is prohibited, we’d like to cite for the words of Dr. Zakir Naik, the president of Islamic Research Foundation, Mumbai. He states the following:

“The fact that consumption of pork is prohibited in Islam is well known. The following points explain various aspects of this prohibition:  

1. Pork prohibited in the Qur’an:

The Qur’an prohibits the consumption of pork in no less than 4 different places. It’s prohibited in 2:173, 5:3, 6:145 and 16:115. For instance, Allah says: “Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked a name other than that of Allah.” (Al-Ma’idah 5: 3)

The above verses of the Glorious Qur’an are sufficient to satisfy a Muslim as to why pork is forbidden.  
2. Pork prohibited in the Bible: 
Addressing the Christian who is likely to be convinced by his religious scriptures, the Bible prohibits the consumption of pork, in the book of Leviticus: “…and the swine, as he divideth the hoof, and be cloven footed, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcass shall ye not touch, they are unclean to you.” (Leviticus chapter 11 verse 7 and 8)  
Pork is also prohibited in the book of Deuteronomy
: “And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean unto you. Ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor touch their dead carcass.” (Deuteronomy chapter 14 verse 8). A similar prohibition is repeated in the book of Isaiah chapter 65 verse 2-5.  

3. Consumption of pork causes several diseases:

The other non-Muslims and atheists will agree only if convinced through reason, logic and science. Eating of pork can cause no less than seventy different types of diseases.

A person can have various helminthes, like roundworm, pinworm, hookworm, etc. One of the most dangerous is Taenia Solium, which in a layman’s terminology is called tapeworm. It harbors in the intestine and is very long. Its ova, i.e. eggs, enter the blood stream and can reach almost all the organs of the body. If it enters the brain it can cause memory loss. If it enters the heart it can cause heart attack and if it enters the eye it can cause blindness. If it enters the liver it can cause liver damage. It can damage almost all the organs of the body.  

Another dangerous helminthes is Taenia Trichuriasis. A common misconception about pork is that if it is cooked well, these ova die. In a research project undertaken in America, it was found that out of twenty-four people suffering from Taenia tichurasis, twenty two had cooked the pork very well. This indicates that the ovas present in the pork do not die under normal cooking temperature.

4. Pork has fat building material:

Pork has very little muscle building material and contains excess of fat. This fat gets deposited in the vessels and can cause hypertension and heart attack.  

5. The pig is one of the filthiest animals on earth:

The pig is one of the filthiest animals on earth. It lives and thrives on muck, filth and dirt. In the villages they don’t have modern toilets and the villagers excrete in the open air. Very often excreta are cleared by pigs.  

Some may argue that in advanced countries like Australia, pigs are bred in very clean and hygienic conditions. Even in these hygienic conditions the pigs are kept together in sties. No matter how hard you try to keep them clean they are filthy by nature. They eat and enjoy their own as well as their neighbor’s excreta. ”  

6. Pig is the most shameless animal

The pig is the most shameless animal on the face of the earth. It is the only animal that invites its friends to have sex with its mate. In America, most people consume pork. Many times after dance parties, they have swapping of wives; i.e. many say “you sleep with my wife and I will sleep with your wife.” If you eat pigs then you behave like pigs.




Question :

Can we eat the meat or any food that is cooked in the oil in which pork was fried? I am not asking about the pork but any other food fired in that oil? Is it halal or haram?

Answer :

No, you are not allowed to eat meat or food prepared in the oil in which pork was fried, because such oil contains ingredients from pork or at least has contact with pork, which is considered najas and impure. So, stay away from them."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




It was said that there is a difference of scholarly opinion concerning the use of animal-derived ingredients in non-food products such as lotions and soaps and whether we as Muslims can use these products.

Answer: Praise be to Allah.  


With regard to the ruling on using fats from haraam animals in manufacturing soap etc., yes there is a difference of scholarly opinion, but it is most likely the case, that they are haraam and we are not allowed to use them. 

We will explain this further – in sha Allah – in the following points. 


With regard to the verse (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like), or the flesh of swine (pork); for that surely, is impure or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols, or on which Allah’s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But whosoever is forced by necessity without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits; (for him) certainly, your Lord is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful’ [Al-An’aam 6:145]

Its meaning is as follows: 

Here Allah is commanding His slave and Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): Say, O Muhammad, my Lord has not forbidden any foods apart from these; everything else is halaal (permissible). 

unless it be Maytah (a dead animal) this refers to whatever dies a natural death, such as an animal that is dealt a fatal blow, falls or is gored by another, or that which is slaughtered in a manner other than that which is prescribed in sharee’ah. 

or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like) means blood that flows, unlike other things that are described as “blood” (damm), such as the liver and spleen, and unlike the blood which remains in the flesh and veins after slaughter. 

or the flesh of swine (pork) which is the well known animal (pig). 

for that surely, is impure means it is filthy, abominable and harmful. 

or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols, or on which Allah’s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering) means, it has been slaughtered in a name other than His. 

But whosoever is forced by necessity” to eat one of the things mentioned here, “without wilfull disobedience not wanting to eat it without being forced to, nor transgressing due limits” – “(for him) certainly, your Lord is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful means, He will forgive him for what he has eaten, and will be Merciful towards him. 

However, we should note that there are other haraam things which are not mentioned in this verse. They were forbidden later on, such as every wild animal that has fangs and every bird that has talons, and the meat of domestic donkeys. 


The hadeeth of Jaabir  narrated by al-Bukhaari (2121) and Muslim (1581).  It was narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allah (may Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say on the day of the Conquest when he was in Makkah: “Allah and His Messenger have forbidden the sale of alcohol, dead meat, pigs and idols.” It was said, “O Messenger of Allah, what do you think of the fat taken from a dead animal which is used for caulking ships, greasing animal skins and which people use to light their lamps?” He said, “No, it is haraam.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “May Allah curse the Jews, for Allah forbade them the fat, but they melted it then they sold it and consumed its price.” 

With regard to the meaning: 

It is clear that the context is explaining the prohibition on selling alcohol (khamr – that which fogs (khaamara) the mind – which includes all kinds of alcohol), dead meat, pigs and idols – which are things made from wood, copper, gold, etc, in the form of people or animals. 

Then the Sahaabah wanted to make an exception from this prohibition in the case of selling the fat of dead animals, because of the benefits that there were in it, which that it was used as caulking for ships, to protect the wood from water, and to grease animal skins in order to keep them soft and supple, and as fuel for lamps. 

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not make these things exceptions from the prohibition, as he said, “No, it is forbidden.” Then he mentioned what the Jews did, which was that they melted down the fat that Allah has forbidden to them, and turned it into another substance, such as wax, which they then sold and consumed its price. 

The scholars differed as to what the pronoun huwa (it) in the Prophet’s phrase Laa, huwa haraam (No, it is forbidden) referred. Some of them said that what is haraam is benefitting from the thing; others said that what is haraam is selling it. The latter view is the one which was regarded as correct by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him), who said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (8/136): 

“This view is the one which is correct: that the pronoun in the phrase ‘it is forbidden’ refers to selling, even though the substance in question has these uses that the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) mentioned. That is because the context of the hadeeth has to do with selling. And it was said that ‘it is forbidden’ refers to benefiting from it in these ways, so it is not permissible to caulk ships with it, or grease animal skins with it, or to use it in people’s lamps. But this view is da’eef (weak). 

The correct view is that it is permissible to caulk ships with it, and grease animal skins, and use it in people’s lamps.” 

Al-San’aani said: 

The pronoun in the phrase ‘it is forbidden’ is to be understood as referring to selling, i.e., that selling the fat is haraam. This is the most apparent meaning, because this is what is implied by the context, and because the same hadeeth was narrated by Ahmad, in whose version it says, ‘And what do you think of selling the fat of dead meat?’ Or it may be interpreted as referring to the uses to which it is put, in the phrase, ‘for it is used for caulking ships’ etc.. The majority interpreted it in this manner and said, ‘No use should be made of a dead animal apart from its skin, if it is tanned.’ 

Those who say that the pronoun refers to selling quote as evidence the fact that there is scholarly consensus that it is permissible to feed dead meat to dogs even if they are hunting dogs. It is known that the pronoun is more likely to refer to selling, so it is permissible to make use of naajis (impure) things in general and it is haraam to sell them for the reasons that are known. This view is supported by the fact that the Prophet (S) condemned the Jews for melting down the fat then selling it and consuming its price.

So it is clear that the prohibition is directed against the selling which results in the consumption of its price. If the prohibition applies to selling then it is permissible to make use of the fat of dead animals and impure (naajis) fats for all purposes except food for humans or use on human bodies. (i.e., it is not permissible for a human being to eat the fat from a dead animal or to apply impure (naajis) fats to his body). So the prohibition is like the prohibition on eating dead meat or using impure substances on the body. But it is permissible to feed the fat of dead animals to dogs or to feed honey that is contaminated with an impure substance to bees. All of that is regarded as permissible in the Shaafa’i madhhab, and was narrated by al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad from Maalik and most of his companions, and from Abu Haneefah and his companions, and from al-Layth. 

This hadeeth also indicates that if it is haraam to sell a thing, its price is also forbidden, and that every contrivance that leads to permitting something which is forbidden is false.


With regard to the hadeeth of Maymoonah, narrated by al-Bukhaari (1421) and Muslim (363). The following version is quoted from Muslim because the version narrated by al-Bukhaari does not contain the word “tanning”. 

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: A sheep was given in charity to the freed slave woman of Maymoonah, and it died. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by it and said: “Why do you not take its skin, tan it and make use of it?” They said, “It is dead meat.” He said, “It is only haraam to eat it.” 

With regard to its meaning: 

Maymoonah had a freed slave woman who had a sheep that someone had given to her in charity. When it died, they thought that it was not permissible to make any use of it at all, so they threw it away. This regards to anything other than eating it, such as making use of the skin, that is permissible after tanning it.

The scholars differed concerning the ruling on the skin of dead animals if it is tanned.  Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen favoured the view that tanning purifies the skin of the dead animal if it is from an animal whose meat may be eaten, such as camels, cattle and sheep. But if it comes from an animal whose meat may not be eaten, such as pigs, then it cannot be purified by tanning. 

Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 1/72.

 Shaykh al-Islam said, after quoting the views of the scholars: 

The point of confusion has to do with tanning: is it the case that the skin of animals which are pure when they are alive may be purified by tanning when they are dead or is it the case that tanning can only purify the skin of an animal that is slaughtered properly according to sharee’ah? The second opinion is more likely to be correct, and the evidence for that is that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade using the skin of carnivores, as was narrated by Usaamah ibn ‘Umayr al-Dhuhali.  Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, and al-Nasaa’i. Al-Tirmidhi added the phrase “and (he forbade) their use as furnishing.”  




Question :  

What is the ruling on the presence of rennet in most of the cheeses we buy, when we do not know where it is derived from?

Answer:  Praise be to Allah.

The substance that is put in cheese is rennet; it is a yellowish white substance in a vessel of skin which is extracted from the stomach of a calf or nursing lamb. A little of it is added to the milk, which curdles and becomes cheese. 

See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (5/155). 

The ruling on rennet varies according to where it is taken from. If it is taken from an animal that has been slaughtered in accordance with sharee’ah, then it is pure and may be eaten. If it is taken from an animal that died of natural causes or an animal that was not slaughtered in accordance with sharee’ah, then there is a difference of opinion among the fuqaha’ concerning it. The majority of Maalikis, Shaafa’is and Hanbalis are of the view that it is najis. Abu Haneefah and Ahmad, according to the other report narrated from him, were of the view that it is taahir. This is the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him). He said in al-Fataawa (21/102): It is more likely that their cheese -- referring to the Magians -- is halaal and that the rennet from a dead animal (one that died of natural causes) and its milk are taahir. End quote. 

He also said (35/154): With regard to cheese that is made with their rennet – i.e., from some of the baatini sects who are regarded as kaafirs – there are two well-known views concerning that among the scholars, as in the case of rennet from dead animals and rennet from animals slaughtered by the Magians and Franks, of whom it is said that they do not slaughter meat properly. The view of Abu Haneefah and of Ahmad according to one of the two reports narrated from him is that this cheese is permissible, because the rennet of dead animals is taahir according to this view, because then it does not die when the animal dies. The view of Maalik and al-Shaafa’i, and of Ahmad according to the other report, is that this cheese is najis because in their view the rennet is najis, because the milk and rennet of the dead animal are najis according to them. If meat slaughtered by a particular person cannot be eaten, then meat slaughtered by him is like dead meat. Those who hold both views quoted as evidence reports that were narrated from the Sahaabah. Those who hold the first view narrate that the Sahaabah ate the cheese of the Magians, and those who hold the second view narrate that they ate what they thought was cheese of the Christians. This issue is subject to ijtihaad and one may follow the view of the Shaykh he asks. End quote. 

This is the correct opinion. Whether you know the source of the rennet and that it comes from an animal that was slaughtered properly or otherwise, or you do not know, there is nothing wrong with eating cheese that has been made with it. 

And Allah knows best.

Excerpted, with some modifications, from:



Question :                                                                                                  

What shall I do if there is no halal meat available in the city where I live? Can I eat non-halalmeat? I live in Somerset, UK and there is no halal meat in my area. What are the Islamic rules for eating meat in a non-Muslim country like the UK, keeping in mind that they slaughter animals by stunning them with electricity to make them unconscious, and then they are shot in the head. I am not sure whether they provide water to the animal before slaughter or not. What shall I do regarding all that? Please help as I am really confused.

Answer :                                                                                                     

The question of meat slaughtered by the People of the Book has been a controversial issue among Muslim scholars. The vast majority of scholars from all of the four schools consider it permissible for us. They base this on the clear statement of the Qur'an: "Today, I have permitted for you all good things, and the food of the People of the Book is permissible for you, and your food is permissible for them…..." (Al-Ma`idah 5:5)

According to Ibn Abbas, the food of the People of the Book mentioned in the above verse refers to the meat slaughtered by them.

Based on this, the majority of scholars belonging to the four schools of thought consider it permissible for Muslims to eat animals slaughtered by the Christians and Jews so long as these animals are considered lawful for us to eat.

If you fall in this category of those who live among the People of the Book, then you may eat their meat especially if you cannot find meat slaughtered by Muslims.

As for stunning the animal, it does not make the animal dead, for it is intended only to knock the animal unconscious so that it does not feel pain and it is brought under control. This itself does not render the animal impure and unlawful unless it is dead before slaughter. My own experience with the slaughter houses is that they do not make use of animals which are already dead before slaughter. Inspectors, who are appointed by the government (in countries such as Canada), do make sure that this is not the case.

As far as the wisdom of stunning is concerned, it is really in conformity with the wisdom established in the Prophetic hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said, "Allah has prescribed excellence and compassion in all things, so when you kill, kill well; when you slaughter, slaughter well, and let him sharpen his knife and spare the animal pain."

In conclusion, we are definitely allowed to partake of such meat, especially if we do not find meat provided by Muslims."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:





Many Muslim owned stores sell meat which one assumes is halaal. However I have seen the empty cartons from the suppliers to these stores which make no mention of the meat being halaal. Please, for the sake of Allah, tell us one word about eating meat in the United States. Is it halal or haram?



Dear brother in Islam, thank you for your question which reflects your care to have a clear view of the teachings of Islam. Allah commands Muslims to refer to people of knowledge to learn more about the teachings of Islam.

Allah permits us to consume animals slaughtered by Jews and Christians. There is only one condition, that is, the animal must be properly slaughtered. So we cannot consume the meat of any animal that is not allowed in the first place (such as pork) or one that has not been slaughtered by slitting its jugular vein.

We should refer to Quran in this respect which states :

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety…...”  (Al-Maida 5:3)

So if Islamically slaughtered meat is available, you should select it; and you should consider the meat of the People of the Book as a last alternative.

In his response to your question, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Ash-Shinqiti, Director of the Islamic Center of South Plains, Lubbock, Texas, states the following:

One sentence is not enough to answer such a complex question. For example, I myself used to eat meat when I first came to the United States, but then I stopped eating beef for 3 years. Only after conducting research and several field studies, I feel confident that meat in the US is halal as long as you mention the name of Allah before eating it. There are three basic conditions that make meat halal as follows:

1. That the name of Allah is mentioned over the animal. This can be done after it is slaughtered.

2. That the method of slaughter causes the blood to be drained. Animals are slaughtered using this method in America.

3. That the animals are slaughtered in a merciful way. I believe that the methods used in the United States to slaughter animals are more merciful to animals than those used in many Muslim countries.

Moreover, the US Congress issued a law called The Humane Slaughter of Animals Act. The law requires that specific methods that cause less pain to the animal be used for slaughtering. As for the claims by some scholars that a lot of these animals die as a result of being stunned before having their jugular vein slit,I conducted research on this subject and found that these claims are baseless. This is so because the reports by the general inspector of the US Government confirmed that a lot of animals do not get affected by the stunning so when they are slaughtered, they still experience pain.

Muslim scholars who forbid the consumption of beef based their argument on the assumption that stunning kills the animal before their jugular vein is slit. This is not true according to the report released by the general inspector.

Therefore, I believe animals slaughtered in the United States are halal to consume as long as you say the name of Allah before eating the meat.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:






Why is the consumption of alcohol prohibited in Islam?


Alcohol has been the scourge of human society since time immemorial. It continues to cost countless human lives, and causes terrible misery to millions throughout the world. Alcohol is the root cause of several problems facing society. The statistics of soaring crime rates, increasing instances of mental illnesses and millions of broken homes throughout the world bear mute testimony to the destructive power of alcohol.

1. Prohibition of alcohol in the Qur’an

The Glorious Qur’an prohibits alcohol in the following verse:

“O ye who believe! Intoxicants and Gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an Abomination – of Satan’s handiwork; eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.” [Al-Maida 5:90]

2. Prohibition of alcohol in the Bible

The Bible prohibits the consumption of alcohol in the following verses:

a. “Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging; and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.”  [Proverbs 20:1]

b. “And be not drunk with wine.” [Ephesians 5:18]

3. Alcohol inhibits the inhibitory centre

The human beings possess an inhibitory centre in their brains. This inhibitory centre prevents the person from doing things that he considers wrong. For instance a person does not normally use abusive language while addressing his parents or elders. If he has to answer the call of nature, his inhibitory centre will prevent him from doing so in public. Therefore he uses the toilet. When a person consumes alcohol, the inhibitory centre itself is inhibited. That is precisely the reason that an inebriated person is often found to be indulging in behaviour that is completely uncharacteristic of him. For instance the intoxicated person is found to use abusive and foul language and does not realize his mistake even if he is addressing his parents. Many even urinate in their clothes. Neither do they talk nor walk properly. They even misbehave.

4. Cases of adultery, rape, incest and AIDS are found more among alcoholics

According to National Crime Victimization Survey Bureau of Justice (U.S. Department of Justice) in the year 1996 alone everyday on an average 2,713 rapes took place. The statistics tell us that the majority of the rapists, were intoxicated while committing the crime. The same is true in cases of molestation. According to statistics, 8% of Americans commit incest i.e. one in every twelve to thirteen persons in America is involved in incest. Almost all the cases of incest are due to intoxication of one or both the persons involved. One of the major factors associated with the spread of AIDS, the most dreaded disease, is alcoholism.

5. Every alcoholic was initially a social drinker

Many may argue in favour of liquor by calling themselves ‘social drinkers’. They claim that they only have one or two pegs and they have self-control and so never get intoxicated. Investigations reveal that every alcoholic started as a social drinker. Not a single alcoholic or drunkard initially starts drinking with the intention of becoming an alcoholic or a drunkard. No social drinker can say that I have been having alcohol for several years and that I have so much self control that I have never been intoxicated even a single time.

6. If a person is intoxicated just once and commits something shameful, it will remain with him for a lifetime.

Suppose a ‘social drinker’ loses his self-control just once. In a state of intoxication he commits rape or incest. Even if the act is later regretted, a normal human being is likely to carry the guilt throughout his life. Both the perpetrator and the victim are irreparably and irreversibly damaged.

7. Alcohol is prohibited in the Hadith

The Prophet of Islam Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

a. In Sunan Ibn-I-Majah Volume 3, Book of Intoxicants, Chapter 30 Hadith No. 3371.

“Alcohol is the mother of all evils and it is the most shameful of evils.”


b. In Sunan Ibn-I-Majah Volume 3, Book of Intoxicants, Chapter 30 Hadith No. 3392

“Anything which intoxicates in a large quantity, is prohibited even in a small quantity.”


c. Not only those who drink alcohol are cursed but also those who deal with them directly or indirectly are cursed by Allah. According to Sunan Ibn-I-Majah Volume 3, Book of Intoxicants, Chapter 30 Hadith No. 3380. It was reported by Anas (may Allah be pleased with him), that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:

“God’s curse falls on ten groups of people who deal with alcohol. The one who distills it, the one for whom it has been distilled, the one who drinks it, the one who transports it, the one to who it has been brought, the one whom serves it, the one who sells it, the one who utilizes money from it, the one who buys it and the one who buys it for someone else.”

8. Diseases associated with alcoholism

There are several scientific reasons for the prohibition of consumption of intoxicants i.e. alcohol. The maximum number of deaths in the world related to any one particular cause is due to the consumption of alcohol. Millions of people die every year only because of intake of alcohol. Below is a simple list of few of the alcohol related illnesses:

1.   Cirrhosis of Liver is the most well known alcohol associated disease.


2.    Others are Cancer of Oesophagus, Cancer of Head and Neck, Cancer of Liver (Hepatoma), Cancer of Bowel, etc.


3.   Oesophagitis, Gastritis, Pancreatitis and Hepatitis are linked with alcohol consumption.


4.   Cardiomyopathy, Hypertension, Coronary Artherosclerosis, Angina and Heart Attacks are linked with heavy alcohol intakes.


5.    Strokes, Apoplexy, Fits and different types of Paralysis are linked with alcohol intake.


6.   Peripheral Neuropathy, Cortical Atrophy, Cerebellar Atrophy are well-known syndromes caused by alcohol consumption.


7.   Wernicke – Korsakoff syndrome with amnesia of recent events,

confabulations and retainment of memory to old events with different types of paralysis are mainly due to thiamine deficiency due to excessive alcohol intake.


8.   Beriberi and other deficiencies are not uncommon among alcoholics. Even Pellagra occurs in alcoholics.


9.   Delerium Tremens is a serious complication that may occur during recurrent infection of alcoholics or post operatively. It also occurs during abstention as a sign of withdrawal effect. It is quite serious and may cause death even if treated in well equipped centres.


10.  Numerous Endocrine Disorders have been associated with alcoholism ranging from Myxodema to Hyperthyroidism and Florid Cushing Syndrome.


11. Hematological ill effects are long and variable. Folic acid deficiency, however, is the most common manifestation of alcoholic abuse resulting in Macrocytic Anemia. Zeive’s syndrome is a triad of Hemolytic Anemia, Jaundice and Hyperlipaedemia that follows alcoholic binges.


12.  Thrombocytopenia and other platelet abnormalities are not rare in alcoholics.


13. The commonly used tablet metronidazole (flagyl) interacts badly with alcohol.


14. Recurrent infection is very common among chronic alcoholics. The resistance to disease and the immunological defense system are

compromised by alcohol intake.


15. Chest infections are notorious in alcoholics. Pneumonia, Lung Abcess, Emphysema and Pulmonary Tuberculosis are all common in alcoholics.


16. During acute alcoholic intoxication, the drunk person usually vomits, the cough reflexes which are protective are paralysed. The vomitus thus easily pass to the lung causing Pneumonia or Lung Abscess. Occasionally it may even cause suffocation and death.


17. The ill effects of alcohol consumption on women deserves special mention. Females are more vulnerable to alcohol-related Cirrhosis than men. During pregnancy alcohol consumption has a severe detrimental effect on the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is being recognized more and more in the medical profession.


18.  Skin diseases are also related to alcohol indulgence.


19. Eczema, Alopecia, Nail Dystrophy, Paronychia (infection around the nails) and Angular Stomatitis (inflammation of the angle of the mouth) are common diseases among alcoholics. 

9. Alcoholism is a ‘disease’

Medical doctors have now turned liberal towards alcoholics and call alcoholism a disease rather than an addiction. The Islamic Research Foundation has published a pamphlet that says: If alcohol is a disease, it is the only disease that:

- Is sold in bottles

- Is advertised in newspapers, magazines, on radio and television

- Has licensed outlets to spread it

- Produces revenue for the government

- Brings violent deaths on the highways

- Destroys family life and increases crime

- Has no germs or viral cause


Allah (swt) in His Infinite Wisdom has warned us against this snare of Satan. Islam is called the “Deen-ul-Fitrah” or the natural religion of Man. All its injunctions are aimed at preserving the natural state of man. Alcohol is a deviation from this natural state, for the individual as well as for society. It degrades man to a level below that of the beasts he claims to be superior to. Hence the consumption of alcohol is prohibited in Islam.




It it permissible for a Muslim to eat with non Muslims people who drink wine on the same table.

Answer:  Name of Counselor : Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

It is not permissible to sit with people who are drinking wine (alcohol), whether they are kaafirs or Muslims. Allah says concerning the one who sits with those who are speaking of kufr and falsehood: 

 “…. when you hear the Verses of Allâh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them….”  (An-Nisaa’ 4:140)

Al-Tabari said: this aayah clearly indicates that it is not allowed to sit with the people of falsehood of any kind, when they are indulging in their falsehood. “…but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them…” (An-Nisaa’ 4:140). Ibn Katheer said: i.e., you would be like them in sinning. 

According to a hadeeth narrated by Jaabir, the Prophet (pecace and blessings of Allah  be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah  and the Last Day, let him not sit at a table where wine is being served.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, al-Adab, 2725; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 2246). The commentator on the hadeeth said: even if he does not drink with them, it is as if he is approving of their evil action

So it is not permissible to sit with them or to converse with them, even if one does not drink, because if he does that he is like a silent shaytaan (devil). 

If you see them, then you have to denounce them for that, and if they do not respond then leave them and keep away from them. We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound. May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



 Question :      

Both in Christianity and Judaism, wine is permitted. Why is it haram in Islam?I can understand the reason for drinking too much alcohol and being "drunk". Wine, however, is said to be healthy in moderation and was also drunk by Prophet Jesus?

Answer :         

Dear Ali, wine is forbidden in all divine religions including Christianity. Jesus did not drink wine though it is written in one of the four Gospels. In the Last Supper, Jesus drank wine but this incident, even if we accept as true, was never repeated by Jesus. I mean there is no report that he used to drink wine and Jesus is not an exception.

He is one of the Prophets of God who came to fulfill the message of Allah not to destroy anything revealed to Prophets preceding him. Also, wine was forbidden by all the Old Testament.

In the Qur’an, Allah says that wine is an evil act and it breeds enmity between people and take them away from the right path. Allah says in the Qur’an, “O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed (90) Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship.” (Al-Ma’idah 5:90 - 91)

To talk about the evil consequences of wine, the evil effects of wine are widely known and many western scholars, doctors and scientists warn their societies against indulging in drinking wine.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :

I would like to know if it is permissible to take medicine containing alcohol which is used to preserve it.

Answer :                                                                                                                  

Responding to the question in point, the eminent Muslim scholar, Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, states:

"Some jurists do not consider medicine to be necessary as food. They cited the following Hadith to support their argument. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says, "Allah has not made things that are unlawful for you to consume to be your medicine."

On the other hand, other jurists maintain that medicine is so important and necessary as food. Both of them preserve man and safeguard his life. They said that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has allowed both `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf and Az-Zubayr ibn Al-`Awwaam to wear silk garments, though male Muslims are not allowed to wear it, because of necessity. The two men were suffering from some sort of itching.

It seems that the aforementioned view goes in harmony with the spirit of Islam. However, there are certain conditions that must be fulfilled in order to take a medicine containing haram ingredients. Such conditions may be classified as follows:  

1)  The medicine containing haram ingredients (alcohol as stated in the question) must be necessary for the life of the person who takes it.

2)  A knowledgeable and trustworthy Muslim physician should recommend such type of medicine containing alcohol.

3)  The person is not allowed to take this particular type of medicine while there are other lawful medicines available."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :          

I know that drinking alcoholic beverages is Haram according to Islamic law. What about other uses of alcohol in the following categories: rubbing over an injury, cologne or perfumes that contain alcohol, toothpaste that contains alcohol and using any soap or any cleaning material that contains alcohol?

Answer :             

In his response to the question, Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi, former president of the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), states the following:

“There are many types of alcohol, actually there are hundreds of members in alcohol family. Among them ethyl is the best known and this alcohol is generally used in beverages. There are some types of alcohol that are denatured and are used in perfumes and other cleansing agents. The rubbing alcohol does not contain ethyl alcohol. It is dangerous for drinking and may cause blindness and death. The external use of such alcohol is not forbidden in Islam.

According to the Qur’an and Sunnah, it is Haram to drink alcohol or alcoholic beverages. Even a small amount of alcohol is Haram and it must be avoided. However, jurists have differed on the Najasah or the physical impurity of alcohol. Some of them consider it Najis (impure), meaning that if it touches the body and clothes then it must be washed. There are others who do not consider it Najis. There are many jurists who have allowed the use of rubbing alcohol and the use of perfumes that contain alcohol.

As far as toothpaste or mouthwash that contain alcohol is concerned, it is better to avoid them, because they go inside the mouth.”

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




What is the ruling on eating lobsters, crabs and shrimps. I have read that Hanfis regard this as haram while I have seen recipes for lobster and shrimp on authentic Islamic websites. Other scholars say that every thing from sea is halal to eat.

Answer: Praise be to Allah.

The basic rule is that all sea food is halal, according to the hadith of the Prophet about the sea: “Its water is pure, and its meat is halal.” And also in the Qura’n: “It is He Who has made the sea subject, that ye may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender….” (An-Nahl 16: 14)

These texts are general and we don’t have any evidence that modify them. So, eating ….is Ok and opinion of the Hanafi is substantiated by solid proofs.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




Question :                                                                                                  


I’m studying in the US. I stay in the hostel which provide meat which is not slaughtered by Muslims. With this, can I eat that meat because if I don’t eat it I have to be a vegetarian which I can’t?

Answer :                                                                                                     

As it has been clarified in a number of fatwas on this website, the meat slaughtered by Christians and Jews are not considered haram for us. Allah says: "Today I have declared all good foods permissible for you, and the food of the People of the Book is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them…" (Al-Maa'idah 5:5)

Based on this, the vast majority of scholars do not consider it haram to consume such meat, especially in cases like yours."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




Killing an animal is a ruthless act. Why then do Muslims consume non vegetarian food?


‘Vegetarianism’ is now a movement the world over. Many even associate it with animal rights. Indeed, a large number of people consider the consumption of meat and other non-vegetarian products to be a violation of animal rights. Islam enjoins mercy and compassion for all living creatures. At the same time Islam maintains that Allah has created the earth and its wondrous flora and fauna for the benefit of mankind. It is upto mankind to use every resource in this world judiciously, as a niyamat (Divine blessing) and amanat (trust) from Allah. Let us look at various other aspects of this argument.

1. A Muslim can be a pure vegetarian

A Muslim can be a very good Muslim despite being a pure vegetarian. It is not compulsory for a Muslim to have non-vegetarian food.

2. Qur’an permits Muslims to have non-vegetarian food

The Qur’an, however permits a Muslim to have non-vegetarian food. The following Qur’anic verses are proof of this fact:

“O ye who believe! Fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals with the exceptions named.” [Al-Maida 5:1]

“And cattle He has created for you (men): from them Ye derive warmth, and numerous benefits, And of their (meat) ye eat.” [An-Nahl 16:5]

“And in cattle (too) ye have an instructive example: From within their bodies We produce (milk) for you to drink; there are, in them, (besides), numerous (other) benefits for you; and of their (meat) ye eat.” [Al-Momanoon 23:21]

3. Meat is nutritious and rich in complete protein

Non-vegetarian food is a good source of excellent protein. It contains

biologically complete protein i.e. all the 8 essential amino acid that are not synthesized by the body and should be supplied in the diet. Meat also contains iron, vitamin B1 and niacin.

4. Humans have Omnivorous set of teeth

If you observe the teeth of herbivorous animals like the cow, goat and sheep, you will find something strikingly similar in all of them. All these animals have a set of flat teeth i.e. suited for herbivorous diet. If you observe the set of teeth of the carnivorous animals like the lion, tiger, or leopard, they all have a set of pointed teeth i.e. suited for a carnivorous diet. If you analyze the set of teeth of humans, you find that they have flat teeth as well as pointed teeth. Thus they have teeth suited for both herbivorous as well as carnivorous food i.e. they are omnivorous. One may ask, if Almighty God wanted humans to have only vegetables, why did He provide us also with pointed teeth? It is logical that He expected us to need and to have both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian food.

5. Humans can digest both vege-tarian and non-vegetarian food

The digestive system of herbivorous animals can digest only vegetables. The digestive system of carnivorous animals can digest only meat. But the digestive system of humans can digest both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. If Almighty God wanted us to have only vegetables then why did He give us a digestive system that can digest both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian food?

6. Hindu scriptures give permission to have non-vegetarian food

a. There are many Hindus who are strictly vegetarian. They think it is against their religion to consume non-vegetarian food. But the true fact is that the Hindu scriptures permit a person to have meat. The scriptures mention Hindu sages and saints consuming non-vegetarian food.


b. It is mentioned in Manu Smruti, law book of Hindus, in chapter 5 verse 30


“The eater who eats the flesh of those to be eaten does nothing bad, even if he does it day after day, for God himself created some to be eaten and some to be eater.”


c. Again next verse of Manu Smruti, that is, chapter 5 verse 31 says

Eating meat is right for the sacrifice, this is traditionally known as a rule of the gods.”


d. Further in Manu Smruti chapter 5 verse 39 and 40 says

“God himself created sacrificial animals for sacrifice, ... , therefore killing in a sacrifice is not killing.”


e. Mahabharata Anushashan Parva chapter 88 narrates the discussion between Dharmaraj Yudhishthira and Pitamah Bhishma about what food one should offer to Pitris (ancestors) during the Shraddha (ceremony of dead) to keep them satisfied. Paragraph reads as follows:

“Yudhishthira said, “O thou of great puissance, tell me what that object is which, if dedicated to the Pitiris (dead ancestors), become inexhaustible! What Havi, again, (if offered) lasts for all time? What, indeed, is that which (if presented) becomes eternal?”


“Bhishma said, “Listen to me, O Yudhishthira, what those Havis are which persons conversant with the rituals of the Shraddha (the ceremony of dead) regard as suitable in view of Shraddha and what the fruits are that attach to each. With sesame seeds and rice and barely and Masha and water and roots and fruits, if given at Shraddhas, the pitris, O king, remain gratified for the period of a month. With fishes offered at Shraddhas, the pitris remain gratified for a period of two months. With the mutton they remain gratified for three months and with the hare for four months, with the flesh of the goat for five months, with the bacon (meat of pig) for six months, and with the flesh of birds for seven. With venison obtained from those deer that are called Prishata, they remain gratified for eight months, and with that obtained from the Ruru for nine months, and with the meat of Gavaya for ten months, With the meat of the bufffalo their gratification lasts for eleven months. With beef presented at the Shraddha, their gratification, it is said , lasts for a full year. Payasa mixed with ghee is as much acceptable to the pitris as beef. With the meat of Vadhrinasa (a large bull) the gratification of pitris lasts for twelve years. the flesh of rhinoceros, offered to the pitris on anniversaries of the lunar days on which they died, becomes inexhaustible. The potherb called Kalaska, the petals of kanchana flower, and meat of (red) goat also, thus offered, prove inexhaustible. So but natural if you want to keep your ancestors satisfied forever, you should serve them the meat of red goat.”

7. Hinduism was influenced by other religions

Though Hindu Scriptures permit its followers to have non-vegetarian food, many Hindus adopted the vegetarian system because they were influenced by other religions like Jainism.

8. Even plants have life

Certain religions have adopted pure vegetarianism as a dietary law because they are totally against the killing of living creatures. If a person can survive without killing any living creature, I would be the first person to adopt such a way of life. In the past people thought plants were lifeless. Today it is a universal fact that even plants have life. Thus their logic of not killing living creatures is not fulfilled even by being a pure vegetarian.

9. Even plants can feel pain

They further argue that plants cannot feel pain, therefore killing a plant is a lesser crime as compared to killing an animal. Today science tells us that even plants can feel pain. But the cry of the plant cannot be heard by the human being. This is due to the inability of the human ear to hear sounds that are not in the audible range i.e. 20 Hertz to 20,000 Hertz. Anything below and above this range cannot be heard by a human being. A dog can hear up to 40,000 Hertz. Thus there are silent dog whistles that have a frequency of more than 20,000 Hertz and less than 40,000 Hertz. These whistles are only heard by dogs and not by human beings. Dog recognizes the masters whistle and comes to the master. There was research done by a farmer in U.S.A. who invented an instrument which converted the cry of the plant so that it could be heard by human beings. He was able to realize immediately when the plant itself cried for water. Latest researches show that the plants can even feel happy and sad. It can also cry.

10. Killing a living creature with two senses less is not a lesser crime

Once a vegetarian argued his case by saying that plants only have two or three senses while the animals have five senses. Therefore killing a plant is a lesser crime than killing an animal. Suppose your brother is born deaf and dumb and has two senses less as compared to other human beings. He becomes mature and someone murders him. Would you ask the judge to give the murderer a lesser punishment because your brother has two senses less? In fact you would say that he has killed an innocent person, and the judge should give the murderer a greater punishment.  Qur’an says:

“O ye people! Eat of what is on earth, lawful and good” [Al-Baqqarah 2:168]

11. Over population of cattle

If every human being was a vegetarian, it would lead to over population of cattle in the world, since their reproduction and multiplication is very swift. Allah (swt) in His Divine Wisdom knows how to maintain the balance of His creation appropriately. No wonder He has permitted us to have the meat of the cattle.

12. Cost of meat is reasonable since all aren’t non-vegetarians

I do not mind if some people are pure vegetarians. However they should not condemn non-vegetarians as ruthless. In fact if all Indians become non vegetarians then the present non-vegetarians would be losers since the prices of meat would rise.




Science tells us that whatever one eats, it has an effect on one’s behaviour. Why then, does Islam allow Muslims to eat non-vegetarian food, since eating of animals could make a person violent and ferocious?


1. Only eating of herbivorous animals allowed

I agree that, what a person eats has an effect on his behaviour. This is one of the reasons why Islam prohibits the eating of carnivorous animals like lion, tiger, leopard, etc. who are violent and ferocious. The consumption of the meat of such animals would probably make a person violent and ferocious. Islam only allows the eating of herbivorous animals like cow, goat, sheep, etc. that are peaceful and docile. Muslims eat peaceful and docile animals because Muslims are peace loving and non-violent people.

2. The Qur’an says Prophet prohibits what is bad

The Qur’an says:

“The Prophet commands them what is just and prohibits what is evil”. “He allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them what is bad (and impure),”  [Al-Araf  7: 157]

“So take what the Messenger assigns to you and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.”  [Al-Hashr 59: 7]

For a Muslim, the Prophet’s statement is sufficient to convince him that Allah does not wish humans to eat some kinds of meat while allowing some other kinds.

3.Hadith of Mohammad (pbuh) prohibiting eating of carnivorous animals

According to various authentic Ahadith narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim including hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas in Sahih Muslim, Book of hunting and slaughter, Hadith No. 4752 and Sunan Ibn-I-Majah chapter 13 Hadith no. 3232 to 3234, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) prohibited the eating of:

a)   Wild animals with canine teeth, i.e. meat eating carnivorous animals. These are animals belonging to the cat families such as lion, tiger, cats, dogs, wolfs, hyenas, etc.


b)   Certain rodents like mice, rats, rabbits with claws, etc.


c)    Certain reptiles like snakes, alligators, etc.


d)    Birds of prey with talons or claws, like vultures, eagle, crows, owl, etc.

There is no scientific evidence that proves beyond doubt that eating non vegetarian food makes one violent.


18. Smoking


I have a very hard time convincing my brother to stop smoking because it is haram. He says some 'Maulanas'say that it isn't haram like Alcohol. How can I prove to him that smoking is haram?

Is it possible for a Muslim to sell cigarettes in a non-Muslim country? The customers are sometimes Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. The seller is not a smoker, and he also sells books, newspapers, magazines, stationery, and other things.


Smoking is of course Haram. Many Muslim scholars have already given the fatwa regarding this issue. Those who haven't are still falling behind reading the latest studies regarding its harm on health, on other people's health, on children, and its cost to the economy. Soon insha'Allah, these scholars will catch up and will gave their Haram opinion. Nowadays, the most lenient scholars consider smoking as Makrooh (discouraged). Of course in the past smoking was not considered haram because its effect was never fully known, although as early as in the seventeenth century, many people had already spoken of its harm. However we cannot place it at the same level of alcohol since it is a different issue.

The prohibition of wine is clear in the Qur'an because it is an intoxicant. Based on that, all alcohol products are prohibited. Tobacco on the other hand is a different substance. Its biggest harm is not on the mind but on the physical body. What is Haram in Islam is Haram and should not be used regardless whether it is comparable to alcohol or not. The verses in the Qur'an and the Hadiths from prophet Muhammad (pbuh) are too numerous to mention about the prohibition to hurt one's self (physical and spiritual harm). From our opinion, if someone truly understands Islam, then even if tobacco was not Haram, it is still a habit that the prophet (pbuh) would have discouraged because it is a disgusting, harmful, and wasteful habit, and that in itself is a sufficient reason to stop smoking.

As in any addiction, the person must have strong faith in Allah and a determined will to stop. Every smoker knows that it is difficult to stop and wishes that his most beloved people never get into the habit. Therefore, try to help him by letting him admit that he is a drug addict, then he should seek help to stop.

Responding to the question, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Al-Shinqiti, Director of the Islamic Center of South Plains, Lubbock, Texas, states the following:

"The most correct and preferred view among jurists is that smoking is haram (prohibited). Therefore, selling the haram is tantamount to consuming it. In addition, selling cigarettes is harmful, and inflicting harm on anyone is also forbidden according to the principles of Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: “There must not be harm or reciprocating harm.”

Even if the person is going to harm only himself, we are not supposed to help him in doing this. What about if he is going to harm a lot of people?

The pretext that many people are raising that their businesses might be affected if they don’t sell cigarettes is a very weak argument. There cannot be an excuse for making money at the expense of harming people. There are many other alternatives that the merchant can try to make up for the shortage."

Moreover, Sheikh M. S. Al-Munajjid, a prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer and author, adds:

"Smoking is haram, growing tobacco is haram, and dealing in it is haram, because of the great harm which it causes. This is because of the Prophetic hadith “There must not be harm or reciprocating harm.”

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




Dear Dr. Monzer, I would like to ask the following questions about credit card:

1. On what basis – I mean fiqhi basis - did both the opponents and proponents of credit card base their view of prohibition and permission?

2. What are the cases of hardship that could be mentioned for the permission of credit card?

3. Does the hukm of credit card differ in Islamic countries where Islamic banks are available, or it is a general hukm?

4. Does the OIC have any fatwa on credit card? And if yes, what is their resolution?

Answer :         

1. The opponents of credit card found their view on the basis that it is an interest-based loan contract, consequently it is haram on the ground that it is Riba. There is no doubt that issuing such an interest-based credit card is not permitted for any Islamic/Muslim financial institution. On that basis, Islamic banks issued credit card that are not interest-based. Essentially, the bank withhold from your account an amount as a guarantee for the payment at the end of the grace period of the card, and each month if your current account permits it, the credit card charges will be deducted from the current account, otherwise the amount withheld will be reduced by the amount you due on the credit card and you will be asked to replenish the amount withheld. Islamic banks do not really benefit from the card itself and they provide it as a service to their valued customers. However, they benefit from the mudarabah deposit withheld as a guarantee.

This is also the essence of the OIC resolution on credit card that came in the year 1999 or 2000.

The proponents of the permissibility of using interest-based credit card found their view on the following:

a. While it is true that issuing interest-based credit card by Muslims is not permissible, accepting them by Muslim is permissible because they give a choice to the consumer of either going interest-based or settling within the grace period without any interest. The contract is not a loan contract, it is rather a prior acceptance of hawalah or it is kafalah by the issuer of amount charged by the user.

b. The permissibility of signing a credit card contract and using it is conditional on two points: 1) that the user is keen and able to pay within the grace period; 2) the user will not withdraw cash (because cash withdrawal generate interest from the day of withdrawal and does not have a grace period).

In other words, permissibility is conditional of not invoking the interest clause in the credit card agreement or by using the credit card as a free rider.

2. The permissibility is not based on Muslim/non-Muslim country, nor on needs for the interest-based credit cards. Many people can live without them, but they provide considerable convenience for Muslims who live in a twenty first century (please notice that all opponents of credit cards do not live in our time, they are still living in the fourteenth and fifteenth closed economy century.)

Note: the annual fee in credit cards is permissible and practiced by many Islamic banks.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :                                                                                                  

What is the Islamic ruling on wearing perfumes that contain alcohol?


Answer :                                                                                                     

As for your question, some Muslim scholars say that wearing alcohol-based perfumes is allowed in Islam.

In this regard, Al-Azhar House of Fatwa issued the following Fatwa:

"In Islam, it is unanimously held that all things are supposed to be deemed pure, and that it is not necessary that all what is declared forbidden is considered impure. This is because impurity is a legal ruling that needs evidence. For example, drugs and fatal poisons are forbidden, yet this by no means qualify them to be impure.

For this reason, some scholars including Rabi`ah, Al-Layth Ibn Sa`d, Al-Muzani (the companion of Ash-Shafi`i) and some other scholars hold that wine is pure regardless of its being unlawful, and that only drinking it is forbidden. However, the majority of jurists are of the view that wine is impure and forbidden.

Thus, we conclude that all that is impure is deemed forbidden, but not vice versa. This is because regarding something as impure is to forbid any physical contact with it, whereas regarding something as unlawful is not necessarily to forbid any contact with it. To illustrate, wearing gold and silk is unlawful (for men), yet they are considered pure by the consensus of scholars and thus can be touched by men.

As far as perfumes containing alcohol is concerned, they consist of many ingredients like water, perfume, and alcohol that comprises the highest percentage. It is known that alcohol is produced from sugarcane by way of distillation. Thus, according to the juristic rule, which states that all things are presumed to be originally pure and that being prohibited does not render something impure, perfumes that contain alcohol are pure, particularly if we bear in mind that they are used for cleaning and perfuming the body. Thus, it is permissible to use these perfumes and there is nothing wrong in that."

Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi, former President of the Islamic Society of North America, adds:

"It is forbidden to drink alcohol. In the perfumes usually denatured alcohol is used. This alcohol is not unclean (najas). According to some jurists even natural alcohol is not najas. According to the Shari`ah, there is nothing wrong in using alcohol based perfumes."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question ;

My husband once bought himself a watch out of money gained from "Qimar" (gambling). Almost a year ago, he has repented and now he carefully follows the instructions of our religion. He was wondering if he could wear that watch or disregard it? Thank you.

Answer :

"May Allah accept your beloved husband's repentance to Him. However, it is an obligation upon him to clear himself from the watch he gained from gambling through donation to a needy. This is similar to the case of somebody who gained wealth from Riba, he or she has to clear himself or herself from it by disassociating him or herself from that wealth. This is based on the Qur'anic verse: "And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principal (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged." (Al-Baqarah 2:279)"

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I want to ask if the lottery is Halal according to Islam, and can we get money in this way? What about Gambling?

Answer :


"The best way to earn money in Islam is to work hard and employ thought. Islam prohibits a Muslim from earning vast amounts of money without making any effort. Allah Almighty says: "O you who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that you may succeed." (Al-Ma'idah 5:90)

Islam wants people to give their money for good and charitable causes out of the goodness of their hearts, love of God and humanity, and not through devious and dubious ways and means. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says, "Allah does not accept except that which is good and pure." (Reported by Al-Bukhari)


While permitting a variety of games and sports, Islam prohibits any game which involves betting, that is, which has an element of gambling in it. Prophet said, "He who says to his friend, 'Come, let us "gamble,' must give charity."

It is not lawful for the Muslim to seek relaxation and recreation in gambling, nor is it lawful for him to acquire money through it. There are sound and noble objectives behind this strict prohibition of gambling:

1.  The Islamic teachings urge the Muslim to follow Allah's directives for earning a living, to use natural laws and direct means for the attainment of his objectives, and to employ such causes as produce the desired effects. Gambling, which includes raffling or the lottery, on the other hand, makes a person dependent on chance, "luck" and empty wishes, taking him away from honest labor, serious work and productive effort. The person who depends on gambling loses respect for the laws of causation, which Allah has established and commanded people to use.

2.  In Islam, an individual's property is sacred; it may not be taken from him except through lawful exchange or unless he gives it freely as a gift or in charity. Accordingly, taking it from him by gambling is unlawful.

3.  It is therefore not surprising that gamblers develop hatred and enmity toward one another, although they may claim that losing does not trouble them. There is always a winner and a loser. The loser may seem composed but behind his composure is frustration, anger, and regret: frustration due to disappointment, anger at the loss of money, and regret for not having played a winning game.

4.  Gambling has its own compulsion. The loser plays again in hope of winning the next game in order to regain his earlier losses, while the winner plays again to enjoy the pleasure of winning, impelled by greed for more. If one who finally loses, may have lost all his saving (sometimes wife is also lost) thus getting himself in extreme frustration (and some may suicide). However if luck changes hands, the loser becomes the winner and the winner the loser, and the joy of winning changes into the bitterness of loss. Thus the gamblers may persist at playing the game, unable to bring themselves to leave it; this is the secret of the addiction to gambling.

5.  Because of this addiction, gambling is a danger to the society as well as to the individual. This habit consumes gamblers' time and energy, making them non-productive idlers and parasites on society, who take but do not give, who consume but do not produce. Moreover, due to his absorption with gambling, the gambler neglects his obligations toward his Creator and his duties toward his community, even family. It often happens that a gambling addict sells his honor, property, family, religion, and even country for the sake of the gambling.


How correct the Qur'an is in mentioning drinking and gambling together in its verses, since their harmful effects on the individual, the family, and society are very similar. What is more like alcoholism than addiction to gambling? This is why one usually is not found without the other. Again, how correct the Qur'an is when it teaches us that both of these, drinking and gambling, are inspired by Satan, that they are akin to idolatry and divining by arrows, and that they are filthy and abominable habits which must be shunned. Allah says:

“O you who believe, truly intoxicants and gambling and divination by arrows are an abomination of Satan's doing; avoid them in order that you may be successful. (90) Assuredly Satan desires to sow enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and gambling, and to hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from salat. Will you not then desist?” (Al-Maidah 5:90-91)

What is known as the lottery or raffle is likewise a form of gambling.

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Question :  

Allah blessed me with a baby girl and one of my relatives gave me a large amount of money as a gift. This relative works as a sound engineer in television (controlling the sound in films and the like). 

1.  Is it permissible to spend this money on what I need or do I have to get rid of it by giving it to charitable causes (such as feeding the hungry or other charitable deeds)?

2.  My husband is in debt and is hard up. Is it permissible to pay off part of his debt with this money?

3.  Is it permissible to accept the gift in the first place if it comes from haraam wealth?

4.  Is it permissible to accept a gift from a kaafir?

Answer:  Praise be to Allah.


Haraam wealth is of two types: that which is haraam in and of itself, such as wealth that has been stolen or seized by force. It is not permissible to accept this from anyone, because it must be returned to its owner. 

(The second type is) that which is haraam because of the way in which it has been acquired, such as money that is taken by means of dealing in riba or doing haraam actions, such as bribes, cheating and payments for singing and dancing. That also includes what you have mentioned of working as a sound engineer for haraam movies and soap operas. This wealth which is haraam because of the way in which it was acquired is haraam only for the one who acquires it. As for the one who takes it from him by permissible means, there is nothing wrong with that, although it is better to refrain from taking it and to err on the side of caution and not benefit from it, especially if not taking it will affect its original owner and make him give up this work. 

It was narrated in a saheeh report from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) that he was asked about a person who had a neighbour who consumed riba and invited him to eat with him. 

He said: Accept his invitation, for the pleasure will be yours and the burden of sin will be his. End quote. Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa’l-Hukam (71). 

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (Allah have mercy on him) was asked: A man knows that the source of his father's wealth is haraam; can he eat his father’s food? If he does not eat his father's food, is that considered disobedience to his father? 

He replied: With regard to the man who knows that his father's wealth is haraam, if it is haraam in and of itself, in the sense that he knows that his father stole this money from someone, then it is not permissible to eat it. If you know that your father stole this sheep and slaughtered it, then do not eat and do not accept his invitation. But if it is haraam because of the way in which it was acquired, such as if he deals with riba or cheats and so on, then eat, and the sin is on him. 

The evidence for that is that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him and his family) accepted gifts and food from the Jews, who are known deal in riba and consume haraam. A Jewish woman gave him a poisoned sheep in Khaybar so that he would die, but Allah protected him against that until an appointed time. And a Jewish man invited him to eat barley bread and fat, and he accepted his invitation and ate. And he bought food for his family from a Jew, and he and his family ate. So let him eat and the sin is on his father. End quote from Liqa’ al-Baab al-Maftooh (13/188). 

Based on that, there is nothing wrong with your accepting this money that has come to you from your relative and benefiting from it. 

If you want to give it in charity to your husband who is hard up, he is entitled to charity if he is in debt and hard up, and it is permissible for him to accept your charity, whether the charity is from this money or otherwise. 

Zaynab, the wife of ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood, said to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah upon him): “O Prophet of Allah, today you enjoined charity, and I have jewellery that I want to give in charity, but Ibn Mas’ood claimed that he and his children are more deserving that I should give it in charity to them. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Ibn Mas’ood is right: your husband and your son are more deserving that you should give it in charity to them.” 

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1462) and Muslim (1000). 


The owner of the haraam wealth has to repent to Allah and get rid of the haraam wealth that he has left, by spending it on charitable causes, or giving it to the poor and needy, debtors and the like, with the intention of getting rid of it not of giving charity, because Allah is Good and does not accept anything but that which is good. 

Based on that, if your relative gets rid of this money by giving it to your husband to pay off his debts with it, then he will have done good and your husband can accept it. If he gives it without the intention of getting rid of it and he gives you the money and you give it to your husband, there is nothing wrong with that, as stated above, because you have taken it in a permissible manner which is as a gift, and the sin is only on the one who acquired it (unlawfully). 


It is permissible to accept the gift of a kaafir, so as to soften his heart towards Islam or to honour him as a relative, neighbour and the like. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) accepted the gift of al-Muqawqas, and the sheep given by the Jewish woman. For more information on that, please see the answer to question number 85108

And Allah knows best.

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Question :

Is the income of employees who work in food stores/shops that sell alcohol considered halal (lawful)? Also, is it permissible in Islam to eat from "halal" restaurants which also sell alcohol?

Is it permissible for Muslims to work in places like McDonalds, etc., where the majority of food is haram, and you have to touch pork? Also should Muslims try not to work in such places as they are owned by Americans?

Answer :             

Income in compensation for working in stores that sell alcohol is permissible provided that the work itself does not include handling of alcoholic beverages, because handling these liquors is not permissible and consequently payment received for such a prohibited action is not earned lawfully from the Shari`ah point of view.

Eating in halal restaurants that sell alcohol is permissible as long as you don't share the same table with a person who drinks. It is, however, shameful for such restaurants to offer halal meat side by side with alcoholic beverages.

Working in places like McDonalds is permissible provided that you do not handle the sale of pork.

Besides, dear brother, the majority of the food is not haram. According to the majority of Islamic schools of fiqh (Jurisprudence), meat from animals slaughtered by Christians and Jews is permissible. This means that chicken, beef, and mutton offered by McDonalds and other food sellers are permissible. And it is also permissible to work in places owned by Americans regardless of their religion, the same way it is permissible to work in places owned by people of other nationalities regardless of their religion.

The minority opinion about meat requires the name of Allah be mentioned while slaughtering the animal (does not require the person who slaughter should be Muslim); this opinion is respected though it is the minority opinion, although those people who take this opinion working in a place that provides meat without mentioning the name of Allah on slaughtering is also permissible, because the Hanafi school does not prevent a Muslim from working in a place that applies the other opinions.

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Question :

I live in Germany and I have a friend who works as a taxi driver. He says: on many occasions we get a fare asking us to take him to promiscuous places. When he reaches those places and takes a payment from the one who hired the taxi, our friend the taxi driver has the option of getting out and taking a commission from the owner of that place, which is a considerable amount, no less than 30 euros. If our friend the taxi driver drops off his passenger and goes away, he will not get anything.

My question is:

Is it permissible for him to take this commission and not leave it for them, on the basis that he will donate it to Muslim interests and not benefit from it himself, by analogy with the interest paid by riba-based banks which a person can take and spend on the Muslims, not on himself?

Answer:  Praise be to Allah.

The question should have been about taking those sinners to places of sin, not about the ruling on the commission for taking them to places of immorality and evil. The ruling on this commission is connected to the ruling on taking them there. 

It is haraam to go to bars where alcohol is sold, and night clubs which involve immoral and sinful things. It is not permissible to help anyone with regard to that, or to take him in his car for free or for payment, because that is helping in sin. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“…. Help you one another in Al‑Birr and At‑Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah . Verily, Allah  is Severe in punishment”   (Al-Maa’idah 5:2) 

If he does that and takes someone to those places, then he is a partner in their sin. This is co-operating in sin and transgression, and Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

If he did that knowing that it is haraam, then he must hasten to repent, seek forgiveness, regret what he did and resolve not to go back to it. He should not pay any attention to that evil money that the owners of these evil places offer. The poor have no need of it. The Muslims must denounce the people who frequent these places in which Allah is disobeyed, because the Messenger of Allah  (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him) said: “Whoever among you sees an evil action, let him change it with his hand (by taking action); if he cannot, then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot, then with his heart (by hating it and feeling it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” Narrated by Muslim (49), from the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah  be pleased with him). 

When Islam enjoins him to denounce evil, how can he go from his taxi and enter those places in order to take a commission for bringing someone to commit immoral actions therein? He is one who does not change evil with his hand, with his tongue or even in his heart. This is a serious issue. 

Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

With regard to the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him): “let him change it” this is a command which makes that obligatory, according to the consensus of the ummah. There is a great deal of evidence in the Quran, Sunnah and the consensus of the ummah concerning the command to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil, and this is also part of that sincerity or sincere advice which is Islam. 

It should be noted that this – enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil – has been lost for a long time, and nowadays there is nothing left but a few traces. This is a very serious issue which is of the utmost importance for the society to prosper, because if there is a great deal of evil, the punishment will encompass both righteous and evildoers, if they do not take hold of the wrongdoer’s hand (i.e., restrain him) or they doubt that Allah  will also encompass them in His punishment. “…. And let those who oppose the Messenger’s (Muhammad’s) commandment (i.e. his Sunnah - legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements) (among the sects) beware, lest some Fitnah (disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant) should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them” (Anl-Noor 24:63)    End quote.

Sharh Muslim (2/22-24). 

It is not permissible for a Muslim to deliberately do a haraam deed in order to take their wealth and spend it on Muslim interests, unlike one who has repented from riba or earning haraam wealth, for the repentance of such people requires them to spend that money on charitable causes. 

And Allah knows best.

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Is it haram or even undesireable for us to touch dogs? I have heard many Muslims say that dogs are dirty and Satan has spit on them. Also, that if we do touch a dog, we have to wash our hands several times. I haven't been able to find anything concerning this in the Qur'an, Hadith, or Islamic books. Please help.

Answer:  Praise be to Allah.

The answer to this question is twofold:

1 – The ruling on keeping a dog.

It is haraam to keep a dog unless it is for the purposes for which Islam permits keeping dogs. Whoever keeps a dog – except a dog for hunting or farming – his reward will decrease each day by one or two qeeraats.

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah  be pleased with him) said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah  (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him) say: ‘Whoever keeps a dog, except a dog that is trained for hunting or a dog for herding livestock, his reward will decrease each day by two qeeraats.’” (Bukhaari, 5059; Muslim, 2941; according to another version narrated by them both, “one qeeraat”).

The word qeeraat refers to a large amount of reward; if a person’s reward decreases by one qeeraat, that means that he is sinning, for losing reward is like earning sin, both indicate that something is haraam because of the consequences it leads to.

The impurity of dogs is the greatest of animal impurities. The impurity of a dog can only be removed by washing seven times, one of which should be with earth. Even pigs, which the Qur’aan states are haraam and describes as an abomination (rijs) are not naajis (impure) to such an extent.

Dogs are impure and filthy, but unfortunately we find that some people are attracted to the ways of the kuffaar and their filthy habits, so they have started to keep dogs unnecessarily for no reason, keeping them, training them and cleaning them even though they can never be clean, even if they were washed with the waters of the ocean, because they are essentially impure.

Our advice to them is to repent to Allah  and to get the dogs out of their homes.

But in the case of dogs which are needed for hunting, farming and herding livestock, there is nothing wrong with that because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him) gave permission for that. If you throw this dog out of your house, you will no longer be responsible for it, so do not keep it with you.

2 – The ruling on touching a dog

If you touch it when it is not wet, then your hand does not become impure, but if you touch it when it is wet, this means that the hand becomes impure, according to the opinion of many scholars, and the hand must be washed seven times, one of which should be with earth.

With regard to vessels, if a dog has licked a vessel (i.e., drunk from it), then the vessel must be washed seven times, one of which should be with earth, as was proven in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere, in the hadeeth narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah  be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him) said: “If a dog licks the vessel of any one of you, let him wash it seven times, one of which should be with earth.” It is better if the washing with earth be the first washing.

And Allah knows best.


27: vaccination benefit and its some contents


As-salamu `alaykum. There are many doctors who challenge the mainstream medical consensus that vaccination is beneficial, and they are collecting data that they hope will prove that the ingredients of vaccines, like mercury and aluminum compounds, are dangerous to the brain and thus dangerous to the human body development. Additionally, anti-vaccine movements speak about the additives used in vaccines, such as squalene, which is claimed to cause an autoimmune response in the body, which induces the immune system to attack the body itself. The work they are doing is maligned and hindered. One doctor who works in this area of study is Dr. David Ayoub, who has done research about the mercury component of vaccines. Is it halal to vaccinate patients when the medical community is hampering research about dangers of vaccination?


In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger

 Brother, thank you for your question and interest to know the rulings of Islam.

As a matter of fact, there is a Fiqhi rule in Islam stating that everything is originally halal as long as it does not contradict with any rule of Shari`ah.

 Generally speaking, vaccination is allowed to prevent severe harms and serious diseases.

Regarding your question, we consulted Dr. Hatem Al-Hajj, Dean of Shari`ah Academy of America, who is also a medical doctor, who stated the following,

As for the use of vaccines in general, the late Mufti of Saudi Arabia Sheikh Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baz said,

  "There is nothing wrong with giving medicine to ward off a feared disease, because the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, 'Whoever eats seven dates of Medina in the morning will not be harmed by witchcraft or poison'" (Al-Bukhari).

 In fact, the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) considered vaccines important enough for public safety that they did not require the patient's permission for vaccination (especially in such cases as epidemics). OIC decision no. 67 (7/5) stipulated, "A guardian  is entitled to obligate patients to have medical treatment in some cases, such as if they suffer an infectious disease or in the case of preventive vaccination."

 As for impure additives, if any, they are too insignificant to be considered, and they are often processed into completely different substance. The ruling adopted by majority of contemporary Muslim scholars, and supported by a decision of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, is to avoid impurities such as gelatin in medicines unless there is no alternative to a particular impurity-containing medicine, in which case it may be consumed (that does not include unconsumed wine specifically).

 With regard to the harm suffered from some vaccines, the general principle is that "the lesser of two evils may be done to ward off the greater" (Al-Ashbah Wa An-Naza'ir by As-Suyuti).

It remains the duty of reliable specialists to decide on that weighing of the harms and benefits of each vaccine separately.

 From the perspective of Shari`ah, there does not appear to be a reason for forbidding the use of vaccines, given that vast majority of experts and research institutes affirm that their benefits are much greater. It is to be mentioned that those very experts are known to be giving vaccines to their own children. Thus, and due to many other reasons, the conspiracy theory is unlikely here. After all, the jurist acts upon apparent and available data, and current data does not lead the jurist to forbid vaccines.

Allah knows best.

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I have been taking medicine with alcohol content called Benylin. Is it halaal or haram to take it and also about perfume and beauty products containing alcohol?   (Zubeda)


 In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear sister, thank you for trusting us. We really appreciate your questions as it shows your strong faith and great fear from Allah Almighty. It is really great from you to ask about the ingredients of medicine whether it is halal or not.

It is, indeed, the duty of every Muslim to observe al what he or she eats, drinks, or even take as medicine.

It is our creed, as Muslims, that both illness and recovery are from Allah Almighty. However, we are ordered by our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to use medicines, but not to seek cure in unlawful (haram) material.

Responding to your question, Dr. Hatem Al-Hajj, Dean of Shari`ah Academy of America and who is also a medical physician, and who is also a medical physician, stated,

Seeking treatment is recommended, and may be at times mandatory. However, one should seek wholesome medicines.

It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said,“Allah sent down the disease and the cure, and He made a cure for every disease. So seek treatment, but do not use as medicine that which is haram.” (Abu Dawuud from Abu al-Darda’)

The prohibition of using unlawful (haram) substances as medicine applies primarily to Alcohol,

Tariq ibn Suwayd al-Ju‘fi (may Allah be pleased him) asked the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) about wine and he forbade him or disliked his making it. He said: I only make it as a medicine. He (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “It is not a medicine; rather it is a disease. (Muslim)

Also, every intoxicant is forbidden. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Every intoxicant is haram.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Musa)

Based on the above and other proofs, there is a consensus about the prohibition of using pure khamr (wine) as medicine.  The scholars also agreed on the impermissibility of using haram as medicine in presence of halal alternatives.

The Hanafis allowed the use of forbidden and filthy matters in treatment with the condition that: it is known to be a cure and there is no alternative.

If alcohol was utilized in the preparation, but the final medicine is not intoxicant, this medicine will be halal to use according to: Both Fiqh Assemblies belonging to the OIC and MWL, the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research in KSA, and the European Council for Ifta’ and Research.

Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said, "If alcohol falls into water and is altered, then someone drinks it, he would not be drinking khamr and the hadd (penalty) shall not be warranted for him, since nothing of its taste, color or smell remained."

Benylin has 5% alcohol, which is a high percentage, therefore it should be avoided.

As for the external use of alcohol, it is controversial, and I believe that alcohol is not physically impure, and that it may be used for topical applications to the body. The one clear report about its physical filth is from Omar in a message he wrote to Khalid ibn al-Waleed, however, the whole report is not authentic.

Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (may Allah preserve him) said: “… even saying liquor is impure or filthy is not granted by all scholars. Some jurists of the Salaf questioned that matter, saying liquor's impurity is rather abstract... This is an opinion of weight, ascribed by Qurtubi to Rabi`a …, Al-Layth ibn Saad, Al-Muzani and some other imams of later periods in Baghdad and N. Africa … In his book Al-Sayl Al-Jarrar, Imam Al-Shawkani said: “There is no genuine or dependable evidence that liquor is impure”.

It says in a statement of the Islamic Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League: “… It is also permissible to use alcohol for external cleaning of wounds, to kill germs, and in creams and lotions that are used externally.”

In summary, it is incumbent upon the Muslim physician and pharmacist to use alternatives of alcohol whenever possible. As for the patients, they may use medications in which alcohol was utilized in the preparation, as long as the medicine is not intoxicant, and it doesn’t have alternatives.

A medicine will be considered khamr (intoxicant) if it causes intoxication before death, but if it causes intoxication at a dose (amount) that is not possible to be consumed by a human being without killing him, then it is not intoxicant.

Avoiding it when there is no need is an act of cautious piety. Muslims, when capable, should work on finding alternatives to it. Benylin, however, has 5% alcohol, which is a high percentage, therefore it should be avoided. There are many other alternatives with much less alcohol content.

Allah Almighty knows best.

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 What is Islam's stand on test-tube babies? Jazakum Allah khayran.  (Beena)


 In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

 All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger

Answering the question, Sheikh `Atiyyah Saqr, former head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, states the following:

Test-tube babies are the ones conceived through other means than direct sexual intercourse between male and female; they are medically called test-tube babies for they are conceived through artificial insemination first practiced on human beings in 1977 by John Hunther, a well-reputed British doctor.

 As for Islam's stand on this issue, if the process is done by inseminating the husband's sperm and the wife's ovum, and fertilization is done directly inside the woman's uterus, or done outside, then moved later into her uterus for continuation of reproduction process, there is nothing wrong in that. However, this is on condition that extreme caution is displayed during the insemination process to make sure that nothing alien to both husband and wife is mixed with it.

This indicates that artificial insemination carried out with a semen and an ovum obtained from other partners or planted in another woman's uterus, is completely forbidden. The reason is that such act is tantamount to unlawful sexual intercourse Zina, though it falls short of incurring a prescribed penalty, for it takes another shape from a direct physical contact between male and female.

Allah Almighty knows best.

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Dear Scholar, I would like to know if organ donation is allowed in Islam. Could you, please, provide all the details related to this topic? Thanks.  (Mohsin Khan)


In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

 Dear brother, thank you for your question and for your strong desire to be more knowledgeable about Islam and its rulings.

There is no problem in organ donation in Islam as long as some specific conditions are met.

 Responding to your question, Dr. Wael Shihab, PhD in Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, and the Head of the Shari`ah Dept. of website, stated:

Organ donation is Islamically allowed provided that some specific conditions are met. 

Here, I will quote resolutions of the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. These resolutions were issued after lengthy discussions among a number of scholars, doctors and specialists.

In statement No. 26 concerning one person benefiting from the body parts of another, living or dead, it says:

“The Islamic Fiqh Academy which convened in the fourth conference in Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 18-23 Safar 1408 AH/6-11 February 1988 CE, after studying fiqhi and medical researches submitted to the Academy concerning the issue of one person benefiting from the body parts of another, living or dead, has determined the following:

In the light of the discussions that highlighted the fact that this issue is something that come about as the result of by scientific and medical advances, with clear positive results that in many cases are accompanied by psychological and social harm if it is practiced without shar`i (Shari`ah-based) guidelines and controls that protect human dignity and also seek to achieve the objectives of Shari`ah which tries to achieve all that is good and in the best interests of individuals and societies and promotes cooperation, compassion and selflessness, and after highlighting the main points of this topic whereby it may be discussed and categorized, the following was determined:

With regard to definition: 

First: What is meant here by ‘organ’ is any part of a person, be it tissues, cells, blood and so on, such as the cornea, whether it is still attached or has been separated. 

Second: The use or benefit that is under discussion is a benefit that is dictated by necessity in order to keep the beneficiary alive or to keep some essential or basic function of his body working, such as his sight and so on, provided that the beneficiary is one whose life is protected by Shari`ah.

Third: These kinds of benefit or use are divided into three categories:

a) Transplant of organ from a living person

b) Transplant of organ from a dead person

c) Transplant from a fetus 

A) The first category, which is transplant of an organ from a living person, includes the following:

- Transplant of an organ from one place in the body to another place in the same body, such as transplanting skin, cartilage, bone, veins, blood and so on. 

- Transplant of an organ from the body of a living person to the body of another person. 

Organs in this case may be divided into those on which life depends and those on which life does not depend. With regard to those on which life depends, they may singular organs, of which there is only one in the body, or there may be more than one. The former includes organs such as the heart and liver, and the latter includes organs such as the kidneys and lungs.

As for those on which life does not depend, there are some that control basic functions in the body and some that do not. There are some that are renewed automatically, such as blood, and some that are not; there are some that have an effect on offspring and on the genetic makeup and personality of the individual, such as testicles, ovaries and cells of the nervous system, and some that do not have any such effect.

B)  Transplant of an organ from a dead person

It may be noted that death falls into two categories:

1.  Brain death in which all bodily functions cease completely and cannot be brought back medically.

2.  Where the heart and breathing cease completely and cannot be brought back medically.

Both of these categories were discussed in the resolution passed by the Academy in its third session.

 C) Transplant from a fetus. Use or benefits in this case fall into three categories:

1. Where the fetus is aborted spontaneously (miscarriage)

2. Where the fetus is aborted deliberately by medical or criminal means

3. Where fertilization is done outside the uterus.

 With regard to Shari`ah rulings:

 1. It is permissible to transplant an organ from one place in a person’s body to another place in the same body, but attention must be paid to ensuring that the expected benefits outweigh any possible harm; that is subject to the condition that this is done to replace a lost organ or body part, or to restore its regular shape or function, or to correct a fault or remove a deformity that is causing the person psychological or physical harm.

 2. It is permissible to transplant an organ from the body of one person to another if it is an organ that renews itself automatically, such as blood and skin. But attention must be paid to the condition that the donor be fully qualified and fulfill the shar`i conditions.

3. It is permissible to make use of organs that have been taken from the body of another person due to sickness, such as taking the cornea from the eye of a person whose eye has been removed due to sickness.

4. It is haram to transplant an organ on which life depends, such as transplanting the heart from a living person to another person.

 5. It is haram to transplant an organ from a living person when its removal may cause an essential function to cease, even though his life does not depend on it, such as taking the corneas of both eyes. But if he will still have partial function after removing it, then the matter is subject to further discussion as we shall see below in section.

 6. It is permissible to transplant an organ from a dead person to a living person whose life or basic essential functions depend on that organ, subject to the condition that permission be given by the deceased before his death, or by his heirs after his death, or by the authorities in charge of the Muslims if the identity of the deceased is unknown or he has no heirs.

 7. It should be noted that the agreement on the permissibility of organ transplants explained above is subject to the condition that this is not done by selling the organs, because it is not permissible to subject human organs to sale under any circumstances.

 As for the beneficiary spending money in order to obtain the required organ where necessary or offering compensation or honoring the donor, this is subject to ijtihad and further discussion.

 8. All cases having to do with this topic are subject to further research and discussion, and they should be studied and discussed in a future session in the light of medical data and shar`i rulings. And Allah knows best.” (Quoted from Resolutions of the Islamic Fiqh Academy)

 Donating an organ is like giving charity in terms of its being permissible for a Muslim or a non-Muslim. However, it is not permissible to donate an organ to a non-Muslim combatant who wages war against Muslims and a person who wages attack on Islam. By the same token, it is not permissible to donate it to an apostate as he is no more than a traitor to his religion and his people.

However, if there is a Muslim and a non-Muslim and both are in need of organ or blood donation, the Muslim must be given priority for Allah Almighty says in the Qur’an: 

“The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil………” (At-Tawbah 9:71)

Allah Almighty knows best.

 Excerpted with slight modifications from:



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